Crystallographic Models

We have made over 650 different crystal and molecular structure models, and add new ones to order. We offer a variety of ball and spoke models, using different sized balls and different materials of construction to suit all needs. Space-filling Effex models use blow moulded polythene  full and indented spheres which simply plug together.  A range of orbital models is also available,  injection moulded in durable polymer. Magnequench
Ball and Spoke Models
Since 1947 we have been making ball and spoke models showing the arrangements of atoms in crystals and organic molecules and our catalogue now lists over 600 types that we have produced. Using hardwood for the balls, 1" or 2" in diameter, the models are very durable. The balls do not tend to split as so often happens with acrylic ones. They are painted with many coats of cellulose lacquer according to the internationally recognised colour code and the spokes of aluminium alloy are chemically brightened. Very attractive models result. Most universities around the world have displays of these models and they also find application in advertising for pharmaceutical and synthetic fibre companies as "photographic models" for catalogues, leaflets and exhibitions. Research laboratories and museums also like them for lectures and permanent displays. Models are made to scales of 5, 2.5, 1.25, and 1 cm = 1 Angstrom, using balls 2" to 9mm diameter. For the smaller scale models solid polystyrene or ABS balls are used with stainless steel spokes 1.6 or 1.2mm diameter. Dislocations of plane, edge and screw types are illustrated and the principal lattices are emphasised in various ways. Models of the basic crystalline lattices are available in a variety of configurations.

Z-Kits
Individual Model Kits, for student - assembly. A kit comprises all the required balls and spokes to assemble one model. The balls are molded in durable, self-coloured polythene and drilled with the appropriate holes. The spokes, made of hard aluminium alloy are slit at the ends to ease assembly and to allow them to be adjusted to increase their grip, in case the holes eventually wear. Scale 2.5cm = 1 Angstom Unit.

Brilluoin Zone Models
Designed to show the relationship between the fundamental lattice and the corresponding reciprocal lattice these models provide a clear representation of a concept which many students find difficult to understand from mathematical formulae and diagrams. They are constructed using 13mm solid polystyrene balls and 1.6mm stainless steel spokes.

Orbital Models
Durable, non-expanded polystyrene, injection mouldings of the shapes of the S, P and D orbitals are supported on stainless steel wire frames to form models representing the principal groupings and hybidizations. Space-Filling Models

Effex models
Constructed of blow-moulded polythene spheres and indented spheres which plug together to form models illustrating the exterior form of molecules and compounds. Balls of 30, 63 and 76 mm diameter are used, making them good for demonstration to a whole class as well as easy for students to assemble on their own. Models of Idealised Atomic Structure The nucleus is represented by 1" dia. red and grey balls with stainless steel elliptical hoops supporting small blue balls which represent the electrons. The isotopes of Carbon, thus shown, have been used in the explanation of Carbon Dating.

Trans-Cobalt tetra Ammino Dichloride Optical Isomers: Trioxalato Ethanedioate Cobalt
Crystal Habit Models
Solid models of the shapes adopted by idealised natural crystals: cube, parallelepiped, hexagonal prism, pentagonal dodecahedron, etc. are produced in hardwood and in aluminium alloy. Extra large ones for lecture demonstration are made of bonded board. Hardwood, Acrylic, Polythene, Solid & Expanded Polystyrene Balls These are available in selected sizes from 5 to 300mm (0.2" to 12") diameter. They can be supplied made up into models of atomic packing in sheets. The concept of a unit cell, is nicely illustrated by packed balls bonded into a lattice and cut along the faces of the unit cell. Balls, plain or drilled to your specification can also be provided Connecting spokes in a variety of materials and sizes are available.

Balls
Balls are available, turned in selected hardwood or polymethyl methacrylate, injection moulded in solid polystyrene, polythene, or Acetal Butydiene Styrene (ABS) or formed in expanded polystyrene.
Plain wooden balls can be supplied simply sanded. When drilled with at least one hole they can also be supplied simply sanded, or painted with clear or coloured lacquer. A very high finish can be provided. Plastic balls are available in smaller quantities in a limited range of moulded-in colours. These colours are not very light-fast. Solid polystyrene balls can be painted to increase the range of colours and to provide greater resistance to fading.

Drilling
Drilling of holes can now be done on a programmable machine so almost any angle between holes can be specified. For the standard spokes sizes, holes should not be nearer than 15 to each other.

Spokes
Spoke sizes used in our models are: 0.5mm with 5mm balls; 1.2mm/9mm; 1.6mm/13mm; 0.094"/0.75"; 0.125"/0.875", 22mm,1"; 0.188"/2".